One type of speed workout is the fartlek which is Swedish for “speed play”. It is a wonderful way to break up a run and can be very spontaneous and full of variety.
The idea of fartlek is to run at a face pace until you find it difficult and are out of breath. At that point you should stop, rest and recover your breath (keep moving though) before giving another burst of fast running. It can be randomly put into a running workout depending on how you might feel that day. Always remember though to warm-up properly (run at least a mile) before you begin.
Unlike interval training, you don’t have to watch the time or the distance of how far you run unless you want to. For example you can run to the nearest tree at a fast, hard pace and then recover until the next tree.
Mixing it up and being creative can make this speed workout very enjoyable!
This type of speed training is great for beginners who have been running for a couple of months or for those who want to begin a structured speed workout such as interval training. It will help you ease into the demanding interval training period if that is your goal.
However, beginners should be cautious when it comes to fartlek because often times they push themselves too hard and too fast for too long and take on a high risk of injury in doing so. Those who have been running for more than a year will usually be able to better judge when they are being too intense.
This is not to say that running during a speed workout should be easy. They should be out of your comfort zone but build up intervals and time and don't challenge yourself to too much at once.
There are two basic types of this “speed play” aside from running on a flat surface and those are hill and timed.
As the name suggests, this is done out on a hilly terrain. If you are a beginner however you will first want to incorporate fartlek on runs where you are on a flat surface. Build up slowly to the hills. The benefit to running on hills is that come races you will be able to tackle those hills with no problem.
Timed is for those who want a more structured type of speed workout without doing intervals. Run at a hard pace for a set time, such as 30 seconds, and then recover before going on another 30 second bout. You can always increase or decrease your timed segments to whatever works best for you. A nice goal for beginners is to run about 4-5 minutes of fartlek and increase by one or two minutes each week.
If you find that the Timed Speed Workouts are more for you then an extremely helpful tool to use is the Gymboss Timer. The benefits of this timer and how it will help you to focus on your speed and form rather than how much longer you have to run is all outlined in the page linked above.
This workout will train you to run anaerobically which is important if you want your body to be able to put off the lactate threshold for as long as possible. Your lactate threshold is when you begin to tire easily because you have switched from aerobic to anaerobic running due to having increased the production of lactate, an acid, in your muscles which causes them to go slow.
If you increase the time it takes your body to reach lactate threshold then you will be able to go longer and faster during endurance runs. If you have a time goal in mind then you must train your body to push back this lactate threshold, teach it how to use oxygen efficiently by running both aerobically (longer, slow runs) and anaerobically (shorter, fast runs).
Remember, fartlek can be fun if you make it and it’s an excellent way to gain speed and endurance at the same time!